Museum in the open air
A unique gallery of rock drawings left us a legacy of the ancient artists - the first miners of primitive society. 40 km north of Karman in the fertile valley in the mountains of Karatau is a kind of museum on the black rocks, and an open-air art gallery primitive - Sarmishsai.
Sarmyshsay - a unique monument of antiquity - famous petroglyphs gorge Sarmishsay storing a thousand petroglyphs and other archaeological sites. On the rocks are carved figures of people, their hunting and military weapons, clothing, household goods. Along with them are presented vivid images of various animals, some of which have long since disappeared and is no longer found on the territory of our country. Original gallery create more than 10 000 individual images, many of which are collected in the composition and scenes. Petroglyphs are carved on the rocks that surrounded Sarmishsai on the banks for over two kilometers along the course.
On the rocks shattered the image of a mountain goat, argali, bison, primeval ox, wild horse or Asiatic wild ass, donkey, camel, deer, wild boar, saiga. Well recognized predators - wolf, lion, leopard, leopard, cheetah, fox, jackal, gazelle. Some figures show the men in clothes typical of funeral rites.
In Sarmyshsay there is also a group of images belonging to a later period, the initial and late Middle Ages. Also in the cave paintings Sarmishsay, in addition to a variety of images and geometric shapes, there are sayings written in Arabic script and Cyrillic.
Petroglyphs Sarmishsay widely known in the art for the primitive art of the world. For the first time this monument was discovered by archaeologist H. Muhammedov in 1958, and was the first researcher N.Tashkenbaev. Volume scientific material belongs A.Kabirovu scientist, who spent on Sarmishsai several field expeditions. The result has been described more than three thousand rock drawings of people, animals and different, obviously mythical and totemic symbols. Most petroglyphs relates to the Bronze Age. There are also motifs dating from the Neolithic and Eneolithic. A significant number of drawings created in the Saka-Scythian period. Each millennium has left us the memorial signs.
Another famous archeologists, whose scientific interest became Sarmishsai is M.Huzhanazarov. They discovered and described 66 previously unknown sites of rock art.
Meeting gorge Sarmysh Character is a unique archive, a kind of a large collection of original documents, which contain etched in knocked on the rocks pictures many and varied information on the life, history and culture of our ancient ancestors who lived at Zarafshan in different periods, starting from the deep antiquities. Moreover, many of these data for any other sources is not contained.
It should be noted that on the rocks there is an image of the universe in the form in which it was represented by the nations of Eurasia three thousand years ago. One such image is located in Sweden and the other - in Siberia. The image of the universe in Sarmysh, unlike others, involves much more than the individual petroglyphs, it is much more.
In Sarmysh Gorge collected these petroglyphs, which has no analogues anywhere. Surprisingly, there are such subjects and compositions which demonstrate exactly the rites of the Scythians and Massagetae described in the famous book "father of history" Herodotus. Rock carvings Sarmysh differ exquisite care, particularly decorative and expressive. The same can be said about the petroglyphs gorge Sarmysh.
About Sarmysh and petroglyphs known scientists of Uzbekistan in Samarkand and Tashkent, Moscow, St. Petersburg and Irkutsk, Kazakhstan, Poland and Ukraine.
Petroglyphs Sarmysh some detail tell us about what was in the nature of this valley and its surroundings, as it changed over a five to seven thousand years to the present day. As the historical data, their fate for centuries associated with the development, use and occupation of the people of the gorge.
Primitive hunters duly appreciated this valley with a stream, it is easier to just watch for and managed to get a wild bull, deer, mountain goat or a ram-mouflon. Here to drink every day at the same time came the animals. The presence of water and made a successful hunt this valley particularly revered in ancient times. Sami people settled nearby, down the stream, where the rocky gorge deep gorge turns into a wide valley with flat edges. Then as if purposely prepared nature people summer and winter accommodations - spacious open to the south side of the rock grotto, a canopy in the form of a deep-aivan veranda and literally a few steps away warm cave. At the top of the rocky gorge was arranged sanctuaries and sacrificial places. In connection with them and were, in our opinion, the petroglyphs.
Gone millennium. During this time, it changed in this part of the world many thousands of people. As a result of their economic activity has changed the landscape, breeding for centuries small cattle led to the disappearance of mountain natural forests. Extinct wild bulls tours, red deer, fallow deer, bears. Reduce the number of mountain rivers, streams and springs. The area acquired arid, semi-arid character. Almost all of the wild animals, cillations performed on Sarmishsai, hit the stone "pages" unique "Red Book" - assembly of rock art in Sarmysh Gorge
Many rock paintings and compositions make Sarmishsai object of world importance.
Now, in connection with the acquisition of independence of Uzbekistan, scientists, including all of the world have sought to study Sarmishsay.
October 9-10, 2004 in Navoi International scientific conference "New transitions to the study, conservation and rational management of natural and cultural heritage Sarmishsay", and on October 11-16 held a field seminar in the tract Sarmishsay. These events were organized by the International Institute for Central Asian Studies (IICA) at UNESCO (Samarkand) in cooperation with the Navoi Mining and Metallurgical Combine (NMMC) and the group for the study of rock art "Sarmish" the Institute of Archaeology, Academy of Sciences of Uzbekistan. They were carried out with financial support from UNESCO, NMMC, khokimiyat Navoi region and moral support khokimiyat Navbahor district.
The conference was attended by experts: archaeologists petroglifisty, biologists, ecologists, geologists, academic experts on the development of ecotourism - from 10 countries (Azerbaijan, Italy, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Norway, Pakistan, Russia, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, Japan), and as scientific and public figures of the Republic of Uzbekistan, employees of cultural institutions, higher and secondary educational institutions of the city of Navoi.
The scientific part of the conference started with a presentation of interesting, rich in subjects, style and chronological extent petroglyphic Central Asia complex Sarmishsai. The conference heard a report of the 21 participants on the result of studies on the monuments of rock art of Siberia, Altai, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Pakistan, Norway. In addition, there were presented reports of restoration - conservation works and activities in Central Asia on the preservation of historical and cultural heritage and the development of UNESCO's long-term project "Petroglyphs of Central Asia»
An important aspect of the conference was the discussion on the preservation of cultural heritage material. Particular concern was expressed in connection with the intensive destruction of monuments of rock art under the influence of modern man-made, man-made and other destructive factors. There was a need to strengthen the coordination of regional and international associations, research centers in the study and preservation of the petroglyphs.